Conectar LED con Resistencia



Como conectar LED

Conectar o montar un LED puede parecer lo más fácil de la electrónica, sin embargo requiere conocer y considerar ciertas características para su buen funcionamiento y una vida útil prolongada. 

Estas características son:

  • Vf (Forward Voltaje): Es la tensión en polaridad directa de trabajo del LED y variará en función del color, de la intensidad luminosa y del fabricante. Se mide en Volts.
  • If (Forward Current): Es la intensidad de la corriente que circula por el LED. Se mide en miliamperios.
  • Vs (Source Voltage): Es la tensión de la fuente de alimentación en Volts.
  • R (Resistencia): Es el valor de la resistencia en Ω (Ohm).

Estos cuatro parámetros serán los que deberemos tomar en cuenta al calcular los valores de los componentes adicionales del circuito de alimentación.


Para los valores de voltaje y corriente del LED se podrán utilizar los valores “genéricos”, de la tabla que se muestra en la imagen, según el color y el brillo del LED buscando.

En la gran mayoría de los casos deberemos intercalar una resistencia limitadora en serie entre los LED y la fuente de alimentación.




Para el cálculo de esta resistencia (o resistor) se utiliza la siguiente fórmula:
Donde:
R: Es el valor de la resistencia en Ω (Ohm).
Vs: Es la tensión de la fuente de alimentación en Volts.
Vf: Es la tensión de polaridad directa del LED en Volts.
If: Es la corriente de trabajo del LED en Amper.
N: Es la cantidad de LED en serie que se conectarán

Una vez calculada la resistencia, se seleccionará el componente de valor normalizado o comercial más próximo al calculado (Ver los valores Comerciales en el enlace:  http://prdiagramasyelectronica.blogspot.com/2010/08/codigo-de-colores-de-resistencias.html ) y que posea una capacidad de disipación de potencia acorde al circuito. Generalmente esta potencia será de 1/4 W.

EJEMPLOS:

1. Se desea conectar cinco LED Azul de alto brillo a una batería de 24V.
Para este caso tendremos los siguientes valores:
Vs: 24V
Vf: 3V
If: 0.02A
N: 5                            El valor de la resistencia debe ser de 470 Ohm

2. Se desea conectar tres LED Amarillo de alto brillo a una fuente de 12V
Para este caso tendremos los siguientes valores:
Vs: 12V
Vf: 2V
If: 0.02A
N: 3                            El valor de la resistencia debe ser de 330 Ohm

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